/Composite Spring Capabilities
Composite Spring Capabilities2018-07-05T07:52:18+00:00

Composite Spring Capabilities

Types / Capabilities

There are two types of carbon fiber reinforced polymer springs that can replace conventional disc spring applications as well as installations where coil springs had been the default choice.

Type 1
  • Interlocking lip/flange allows a stack to be self-supporting even when only restrained at the ends
  • Typically larger than 1.38″ ID
  • Configurable for linear or non-linear load curves
  • Series / parallel
  • When considering Type 1, the use of a single element on its own is not possible because the lip & flange extend past the surface of the element on one side and cannot be load bearing. A set of two elements, stacked in series, is the minimum requirement. Friction level can be manipulated to meet application specs.
  • ~1% – 20% hysteresis
Type 1 Composite Spring Elements
Stack consists of F-style, L-style, and N-style elements.
Type 1 Composite Spring Stack
Full stack with alternating F- and L-style elements with a single N-style on top.
Type 1 Lip & Flange Design Composite Springs
Integrated lip and flange design keeps adjacent elements aligned.
Type 2
  • ID down to .75″ are generally possible
  • Requires a full length ID or OD guide to align a stack
  • Can be used as single elements or stacked in series / parallel
  • One part style for a given base rate
Type 2 Composite Spring Diagram - Stack on Rod
ID guide rod to align the elements. This function can also be performed by a guide on the OD of the elements.

Up to 60% weight savings can be achieved depending on application requirements

No side load

If the traditional solution is a helical coil spring but you cannot tolerate the side loading that occurs during compression, then Type 1 elements could be an alternate solution.

Using the lip and flange design to replace the coil spring, Type 1 could reduce friction and wear on mating parts, allowing your component to work as intended.

Steel Spring Side Load Diagram
Parallel ends become angled to each other creating side load.
Composite Spring Side Load Diagram
Parallel ends remain parallel keeping the axis of load centered.
Tuneable hysteresis
  • Much attention is paid to reducing the inherent hysteresis that occurs with stacked disc springs. Our manufacturing techniques and mold designs optimize the mating surfaces on each element reducing the friction in stacked springs.
  • In some cases, techniques can be employed to reduce hysteresis in parallel stacked elements as well. This allows for the tuning of friction levels and the incorporation of damping effects if desired.
Parallel Stack Hysteresis Diagram
Parallel stack with adjustable hysteresis
Series Stack Hysteresis Diagram
All series stack with ultra-low hysteresis
Low h/t ratio

The shape of a load curve of a disc spring is governed by ratio of the inside height (h) to the material thickness (t). Below is a graph showing how the h/t ratio changes the shape of the load curve. Our composite disc springs typically have an h/t of .6 – .8, through .4 – 1.0 is possible. (orange lines in the graph below)

Disc Spring Load Curves Diagram Relative to h/t Ratio
Adjust the stack properties on the fly

Manipulate your spring by changing how the elements are oriented. This gives you flexibility on the final spring specs without the need to manufacture new springs.

Ways to Manipulate the Stack

  1. Add a series set of elements
    • Stack Rate: Decreases
    • Stack Deflection: Increases
    • Stack Height: Increases
  2. Make a series set into a parallel set
    • Stack Rate: Increases
    • Stack Deflection: Remains unchanged
    • Stack Height: Increases
CFRP Disc Spring Stacking - Series
Series Stacking
CFRP Disc Spring Stacking - Parallel
Parallel Stacking
CFRP Disc Spring Stack - Series & Parallel Orientation
Mixed stack of series & parallel orientation
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Capabilities
For More Information on Composite Springs:

Composite Spring Product Manager

Greg Hazard
(574) 516-4701

Downloads / Links

Request a Quote Form