MW Industries utilizes analysis methods consistent with SAE and SMI for spring life prediction. Essentially, the minimum and maximum operating stresses are calculated and compared to a family of reference Modified Goodman Diagrams. In cases where unusual spring configuration or non-standard materials are employed, it is best to demonstrate fatigue life capability through testing. Under these cases, MW Industries employs Reliability Engineering techniques to develop test methods and analyze test results in an effort to ensure that our products meet customer expectations.
Yes. In addition to our corporate engineering staff, each division retains an engineering staff that routinely reviews existing customer designs and works to develop new designs based on customer input.
Each application often has its own needs, but there are some general rules of thumb. The various wire specifications typically include diameter tolerances. So, citing a wire type and specification along with a wire diameter tolerance can be either conflicting or redundant. The application may place some dimensional constraints (i.e. minimum or maximum free length, maximum solid height, maximum OD or minimum ID, etc.). Those significant to your application should be cited on the spring requirements. Spring force output at reference heights are often significant and can be toleranced. In general, spring rate and total coil count are referenced. Flexibility on these items provides the spring maker sufficient freedom to assure that the true key characteristics meet your needs.
Unfortunately, there is not a simple answer to this question. The appropriate stress limits depend on the material type, operating environment, and whether the loading condition is static or cyclic. Please contact us with your application and our engineers will answer any questions you might have regarding spring design, material selection or application, and with developing the right spring for your project.
In addition to handbook calculations, MW Industries has developed a variety of proprietary models that enable us to accurately model complex geometries. These can include variable wire diameter, spring diameter, and pitch.
Yes. We have a metallurgist on staff ready to address your specific needs. In addition to our in-house lab capabilities, we have contracted with strategic labs in the area to ensure that we have ready access to the latest technology in electron microscopy and electron dispersion spectrography.
The stored energy is the integral of the load vs. deflection curve. For a spring with a constant rate k deflected x from its free length, the stored energy will equal (kx^2)/2.
d – wire diameter
D – mean diameter, the diameter of the spring as measured at the wire centerline
ID – inside diameter, D-d
OD – outside diameter, D+d
Na – number of active coils
Nt – total coils, active coils plus any inactive coils. For a spring with closed ends, Nt=Na+2
FL – free length, the spring length with no load applied
P, F – load or force, the force exerted by the spring under a given deflection
l – instantaneous spring length, the spring length corresponding to a given applied load
x, s – instantaneous deflection, the amount the spring is compressed from free length to length l. x=FL-l
k – spring rate, the derivative of the load-deflection curve. k=P/x=(P2-P1)/(l1-l2)=(P2-P1)/(x2-x1)
C – spring index, the ratio of the mean diameter to the wire diameter. C=D/d
The purpose of grinding spring ends is to distribute the force applied at the spring end across as large a surface area as possible. This is typical when the spring is to be compressed between flat end plates.
End grinding is one of the most expensive processes in spring manufacturing. If the production volume of your assembly is high enough, it may be more cost-effective to design mating components that mate with unground spring ends in a way that the load is still distributed across a large surface area. This is typically the case in automotive McPherson strut assemblies. Another case where grinding might be avoided is large index springs, particularly with very small wire diameter.
Our skilled engineers will work with you to develop a method to address your specific issues. For example, when faced with a continuing fatigue failure issue on a snap ring used in an automatic transmission, Matthew-Warren Division developed a technique to increase fatigue life. This process development solved the customer’s failure issues without forcing a re-design.
Our manufacturing facilities select appropriate process control tools for the quantity of products being produced and customer requirements. Depending on the market segments served, most of our divisions are certified to one or more quality system standards such as ISO 9000/9001, AS-9100, and TS 16949. To view individual division certifications, click on the MW Industries division of your interest from the right-hand column.
There are three basic spring manufacturing methods. The most common is cold winding. In this case, wire that has already been heat-treated or worked to its final strength level is coiled into a spring. Because the material is already at strength, this process is typically limited in how large of a wire diameter can be coiled and how small of an index can be achieved. Depending on the equipment and process that is available and strength of the material being coiled, the typical maximum wire diameter for this process is 0.625″ in diameter.
The next process is less common, but still falls under cold winding. In this case, wire is coiled in a soft state and then heat-treated to its final strength condition after coiling. For a given piece of coiling equipment, larger wire diameter and/or smaller indexes can be coiled with this method. This process is used for wire sizes up to .875″ in diameter.
The final process is hot winding. In this case, bars are heated to approximately 1700°F and coiled. Usually, the red-hot spring is quenched in oil and tempered to complete the heat treatment. Coiling at such a high temperature enables spring manufacturers to work with far larger bar sizes than could be coiled at room temperature. This process is generally used for bars up to 1.75″ in diameter.
Which process to use is determined first by the size of wire that must be coiled. Once that is determined, the type of material, final wire strength level, and spring index will drive manufacturing toward a process that is most compatible with the available equipment.
Residual stress forms when a product is welded, cut, cast, or undergoes some other manufacturing processes involving heat or deformation. Residual stress may be beneficial or not, depending on the application.
MWI engineers will answer any questions you might have regarding product design, material selection or application.
Often customers have a spring application that requires a lot of force in a little space — usually too little space. MWI believes springs should be designed to fit your product and application, and not the other way around. One way of maximizing this force is to use square wire.
Load points should be specified between 15% and 85% of the possible deflection in a compression spring. Load points outside of these ranges are typically inconsistent with expected/calculated values. The values are not linear outside of this range and are often unpredictable. The illustration below represents calculated vs. measured values for a load specified outside of the 85% range. The values are as expected until we exceed 85% of the deflection.
Customers should involve our engineers during the development process for a wire form product. A slight change in an angle or radius can make a big difference in production times. It can even enable the part to be manufactured in a single operation, rather than in a process that includes costly and time-consuming secondary steps.